Tự học

Câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp - đề cương ôn tập tiếng anh THPT.

ReadzoCâu trực tiếp, gián tiếp - đề cương ôn tập tiếng anh THPT.

Thủy Tinh

Thủy Tinh

06/07/2015

7822 Đã xem

THEORY

* When we report what someone said, we do not repeat their exact words but we give the meaning of what was said.

+ Tenses in the reported clause don’t change after the present or future reporting verbs, we only change pronouns.

Eg. – The farmer says, “ I hope it will rain tomorrow.”

      ---> The farmer says that he hopes it will rain tomorrow.

    - She has said, “ I’m tired now.”

     ---> She has said that she is tired now.

+ Tenses in the reported clause will change after the past reporting verbs

A. Changes in tenses of verbs

Reported

I. Reported order, command, request, advice

- Verbs used : order, command, tell, ask, request ……

Eg. – “ Hurry up, Lan.”

      à He told Lan to hurry up.

      - “ Shut the door.”

     à He ordered them to shut the door

      - “ Don’t leave the room.”

     à He ordered them not to leave the room.

     - “ Please don’t tell anybody what happened.”

     à She asked me not to tell anybody what (had) happened

                                        II. Reported questions : 2 types

 1. Yes-No questions

     - Verbs used : ask, inquire, wonder …

     - We often use “if” or  “whether” after the verbs.

    Eg. “ Have you seen that film ?”

          à He asked if she had seen that film.

       - “ Will Tom be here tomorrow ? ”

       à She wondered if Tom would be there the day after.

2. WH- questions

    - Verbs used : ask, require, wonder, want to know ….

Eg. – “ What time does the film begin ?”

          à He wanted to know what time the film began.

          - “ What will happen if she can not find her passport ?”

         à He wondered what would happen if she could not find her passport.

NOTE : Direct sentence consits of both statements and questions

     Eg. “ I have left my watch at home. Can you tell me the time ?”

           à He said that he had left his watch at home and asked me if I could tell him the time.

                                            III. Reported exclaimation

     - Verbs used : exclaim

Eg. – “ What a lovely garden they have !”

           à He exclaimed what a lovely garden they had.

           - “ How hot it is !”

           à He exclaimed  how hot it was.

                                         IV. Reported statements

    - Verbs used : say, tell ….                                    

+ to say that                                                                                                                                      

+ to say to somebody

+ to tell somebody

     -  Hoa says, “ I want to go home.”

    à Hoa said she wanted to go home.

                                       V. Reported conditional sentences

 

Direct

Reported

Type 1

- “ I will come to see you if I have time,” the man said to her.

Type 2

- The man told her (that) he would come to see her if he had time.

Type 2,3

- “ What would you say if someone stepped on your feet ?” he asked her.

- “ If you had asked me, I would have lent you my motorbike,” the man said to me.

Type 2,3

-  He asked her what she would say if someone stepped on her feet.

- The man told me (that) if I  had asked him, he would have lent me his motorbike.

  

* Special cases : Tenses in the reported clause don’t change even after the past reporting verbs

1. We use verbs with definite point of time

Eg. He said, “ I was born in 1980.”

     à He said that he was born in 1980.

2. Conditional sentences Type 2,3

    Eg. He said, “ If I were you, I wouldn’t come here.”

          à He said if he were me he wouldn’t come there.

3. Past subjunctive ( in wish-clause, as if,…)

   Eg. Mary said, “ I wish I were a boy.”

         à Mary said that she wished she were a boy.

4. In direct speech, we use : could, would, should, might, used to, ought, would rather, had better ……..

Eg. Tom said to me, “ You had better not contact her.”

     à Tom said to me I had better not contact her.

5. The direct speech indicates the truth

Eg. My teacher said, “ The sun rises in the East.”

     à My teacher said the sun rises in the East.

EXERCISES

Ex1-Report the statements, using the vebs given.

 

1. “I’m going to Paris soon” she said.

  à She said ………………………………………………………………………………..

2. “The film will be interesting.”

 à I thought ………………………………………………………………………………..

3. “I can’t help you because I have too much to do,” she said.

  à She said ………………………………………………………………………………..

4. “Anna has bought the tickets.”

  à I was told ………………………………………………………………………………..

5. “I think it’s a stupid idea, and it won’t work,” said  she.

  à She said ………………………………………………………………………………..

6. “Breakfast is served between 7.00 and 9.00.”

  à The receptionist explained ………………………………………………………………

7. “I went to Oxford University in the 1960s,” he said.

  à He boasted ………………………………………………………………………………..

8. “I’ve never been to America,” she said to me.

  à She told ………………………………………………………………………………..

Ex2- Report the following questions

 1. “Do you want to go out for a meal?” she asked.

   à She asked me ………………………………………………………………………………..

2. “Why are you late?” they asked her.

  à They wondered ………………………………………………………………………………..

3. “Can I use your phone?” asked he.

  à He asked me ………………………………………………………………………………..

4. “Where have you come from?” the customs officer asked.

  à the customs officer asked me ………………………………………………………………

5. “How long are you going to be on holiday?” she asked.

  à She wanted to know …………………………………………………………………………

6. “When do you have to go to work?” she asked.

  à She asked me ………………………………………………………………………………

7. “Did you post my letter?” Penny asked me.

  à Penny wondered ………………………………………………………………………………

8. “Will you be back early?” he asked her.

 à He asked her ………………………………………………………………………………..

Ex3-Rewrite the sentences in reported speech, beginning in the way shown.

  1. “Where are you going?” asked Tom.

   à Tom asked ………………………………………………………………………………..

2. “Where are you going to spend the holiday?” asked Mike.

   à Mike asked ………………………………………………………………………………..

3. “What will you do when you leave school?” said Jennifer.

  à Jennifer asked ………………………………………………………………………………..

4. “How did you know my name?” the nurse asked the doctor.

  à The nurse wanted to know ……………………………………………………………………

5. “Do you have an appointment?” said the clerk.

  à the clerk asked ………………………………………………………………………………..

6. “Have you seen my car keys?” said Bernard to his wife.

  à Bernard wondered …………………………………………………………………………

7. “Why didn’t Isobel phone me?” asked her brother.

  à Isobel’s brother wanted to know ………………………………………………………………

8. “Will you carry my briefcase for me please, James” said Richard.

  à Richard asked ………………………………………………………………………………..

9. “When can I see the doctor?” Charles asked the receptionist.

   à Charles asked ………………………………………………………………………………..

Ex4-Change the following sentences into Reported speech

 

1. He said to her, “ You are my friend.”

    ………………………………………………………………………………..

2. John said ti his mother, “ I don’t know how to do this exercise.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

 3. “ Don’t come back before one o’clock”, advised my brother.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

4. “Cook it in butter”, Mrs. Brown said to her daughter.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

5. The students said, “Teacher, give us better marks, please.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

6. “Pull as hard as you can”, she said to me.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

7. “Who put salt in my coffee?”, he asked.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

8. My friend said, “Are you going to leave tomorrow?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

9. “Have you done your homework?”, said my mother.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

10. I asked Bill, “What time did you go to bed last night?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

11. Paul said “I must go home now.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

12. “There’s been an accident and the road is blocked”, said the policeman.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

13. “We are waiting for the school bus”, said the children.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..                                                            

14. Mary said, “My father died a year ago.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

15. “Must you go now?”, said Mr. Brown.

  ………………………………………………………………………………..

16. “Whose bicycle did you borrow yesterday?”, his mother asked him.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

17. “It isn’t so foggy today as it was yesterday”, said the teacher.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

18. “Be modest if you are a good student”, said my father.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

19. “Shut the door but don’t lock it”, she said to us.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

20. Tom said, “New York is bigger than London.”

  ………………………………………………………………………………..

21. “Please help us,” they said to us.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

22. “Don’t forget to send your parents my regards”, she said to me.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

23. The travellers asked, “How long does it take to get to London?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

24. John said, “I have finished studying my lesson.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

25. Mary said, “I can not go to the movies with you, John.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

26. He asked me, “Why didn’t you come to class yesterday?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

27. “Did you phone me yesterday?”, Tom asked Mary.

  ………………………………………………………………………………..

28. “Do you like it?” – “Yes”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

29. “I didn’t know them. Did you, Tom” she asked

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

30. “Avoid the Marble Arch” said the policeman “There’s going to be a big demonstration here.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

31. “Don’t take more than 2 of these at once”, said the doctor, handing me a bollle of pills.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

32. They said to me, “Let’s go to the zoo.”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

33. “I shouldn’t do that if I were you. Isn’t it very dangerous?”. He said.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

34. “When we’ve finished this game we’ll have supper.” They said to me.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

35. “Have you got any shampoo, Alice. I must wash my hair,” John asked.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

36. He said to me “Listen! Can you hear someone coming?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

37. “Do as I tell you or you’ll be punished. I’ll teach you who is master in this house”, he said.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

38. “When you have cleaned the sitting room, will you please light the fire there? It’s rather

chilly today”, my mother said to me.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

39. “I shall expect to see you next Wednesday.” Mary said to her friend.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

40. The teacher asked “Which book are you talking about , John?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

41. I asked the policeman “Do you know how far it is to the station?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

42. “What a dirty face you have!” Ann said to her son.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

43. “Don’t you know how to behave? There must be no talking in lessons”. The teacher told his students.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

44. “I wonder who is coming on the excursion tomorrow. I do hope it won’t rain.” She said.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

45. “Do as you are told. You are a naughty boy.” Mrs. Brown said.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

46. “It’s a very nice evening. Why don’t we go out for a walk?”, Jim suggested.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

47. “You must decide what you want to do”, she said to her daughter.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

48. Mary asked me “Can you tell me why you are so sad?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

49. Jane said to John “Who will come to the pictures with me?”

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

50. “Will you please find out when he last wrote to me?”, Jean said to her friend.

   ………………………………………………………………………………..

ANSWER KEY

Ex1-Report the statements, using the vebs given

 

1. She said she was going to Paris soon.

2. I thought the film would be interesting.

3. She said she couldn’t help me because she had too much to do.

4. I was told Anna had bought the tickets.

5. She said she thought it was a stupid idea, and it wouldn’t work.

6. The receptionist explained that breakfast was served between 7.00 and 9.00.

7. He boasted that he had been to Oxford University in the 1960s.

8. She told me she’d never been to America.

Ex2- Report the following questions

 

  1. She asked me if I wanted to go out for a meal.

  2. They wondered why she was late.

  3. He asked me if he could use my phone.

  4. the customs officer asked me where I’d come from.

  5. She wanted to know how long I was going to be on holiday.

  6. She asked me when I had to go to work.

  7. Penny wondered if I’d posted her letter

  8. He asked her if she’d be back early.

 

Ex3-Rewrite the sentences in reported speech, beginning in the way shown.

  

  1. Tom asked me where I was going.

  2. Mike asked me where I was going to spend the holiday.

  3. Jennifer asked me what I would do when I left school.

  4. The nurse wanted to know how the doctor knew her name.

  5. The clerk asked me whether / if I had an appointment.

  6. Bernard wondered whether / if his wife had seen his car keys.

  7. Isobel’s brother wanted to know why she hadn’t phoned him.

  8. Richard asked James to carry his briefcase.

   9. Charles asked the receptionist when he could see the doctor.

 

Ex4-Change the following sentences into Reported speech

 

1. He said to her she was his friend.

2. John said to his mother he didn’t know how to do that exercise.

3. My brother advised me not to come back before one o’clock.

4. Mrs. Brown told her daughter to cook in butter.

5. The students asked their teacher to give them better marks.

6. She told me to pull as hard as I could.

7. He asked who had put salt in his coffee.

8. My friend asked me if I was going to leave the day after.

9. My mother asked me if I had done my homework.

10. I asked Bill what time he had gone to bed the night before.

11. Paul said that he had to go home then.

12. The policeman said that there had been an accident and the road was blocked.

13. The children said that they were waiting for the school bus.

14. Mary said that her father had died a year  before.

15. Mrs. Brown asked me if I had to go then.

16. His mother asked him whose bicycle he had borrowed the day before.

17. The teacher said that it wasn’t so foggy that day as it had been the day before.

18. My father told me to be modest if I was a good student.

19. She told us to shut the door but not to lock it.

20. Tom said that New York is bigger than London.

21. They begged us to help them.

22. She told me not to forget to send my parents her regards.

23. The travellers asked me how long it took to get to London.

24. John said that he had finished studying his lesson.

25. Mary said to John she couldn’t go to the movies with him.

26. He asked me why I hadn’t come to class the day before.

27. Tom asked Mary if she had phoned him the day before.

28. He asked me if I liked it and I said that I did.

29. She said to Tom she hadn’t known them and asked him if he had known them.

30. The policeman told everybody to avoid the Marble Arch because there was going to be a big demonstration there.

31. Handing me a bottle of pills, the doctor told me not to take more than 2 of those at once.

32. They asked me to go to the zoo.

33. He said that he shouldn’t do that if he were me because it was very dangerous.

34. They said to me when they had finished that game they would have supper.

35. John said that she had to wash her hair and asked Alice if she had got any shampoo.

36. He told me to listen and asked me if I Heard someone coming.

37. He told me to do as he told me or I would be punished and said that he would teach me who was master in that house.

38. My mother said that it was rather chilly that day and asked me to light the fire there when I had cleaned the siiting room.

39. Mary said to her friend she would expect to see him the following Wednesday.

40. The teacher asked John which book he was talking about.

41. I asked the policeman if he knew how far it was to the station.

42. Ann exclaimed what a dirty face her son had.

43. The teacher asked his students whether they knew how to behave and remarked that there must be no talking in lessons.

44. She wondered who was coming on the excursion the next day and hoped it wouldn’t rain.

45. Mrs. Brown told him to do as he was told and complained that he was a naughty boy.

46. Jim said that it was a very nice evening and suggested going out for a walk.

47. She asked (urged) her daughter to decide what she wanted to do.

48. Mary asked me if I could tell her why I was so sad.

49. Jane asked John who would come to the pictures with her.

50.  Jane asked her friend to find out when he last wrote to her.

 

 

                                                                                                                                                        

 

 

Bạn nghĩ sao về bài viết này ?

Bình luận về bài viết Câu trực tiếp, gián tiếp - đề cương ôn tập tiếng anh THPT.

Bài viết mới đăng

wanna join us!

Hãy tham gia cùng chúng tôi

Tại ReadZo, có rất nhiều cơ hội để phát triển kĩ năng viết đồng thời tạo dựng nguồn doanh thu. Nếu bạn đang tìm kiếm một phương thức kiếm tiền online thì ReadZo sẽ giúp bạn.

Tìm hiểu thêm
Trở thành tác giả chuyên nghiệp và tự chủ tài chính