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Ho Ho

Ho Ho

11/02/2015

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Để học tốt tiếng anh

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                             the PASSIVE VOICE - cú pháp 

a. Theory

part a: PASSIVE VOICE

  I.   usage: - Câu bị động tiếng Anh thường được dùng với nghĩa “được” hay “bị”   với các mục đích sau:        
1. Nhấn mạnh vào người chịu tác động hay nhận tác động hơn là người gây ra tác   động đó.
      Ví dụ: He was rescued yesterday. (Anh ta đã được giải cứu hôm qua)
2. Khi không biết người gây ra tác động đó là ai.
     Ví dụ: My book was taken away. (Cuốn sách của tôi đã bị lấy đi)
3. Khi bản thân người nói vì lý do nào đó không nêu ra người gây ra tác động hay hành động đó.
      Ví dụ: I was informed about your business trip. (Tôi đã được thông tin về chuyến công tác của anh)

  iI.form

tense

active

passive

Simple present

do

is/are done

Present progreesive

is/are doing

is/are being done

Simple Past

did

was/were done

Past progreesive

was/were doing

was/were being done

Present Perfect

has/have done

has/have been done

Present Perfect progressive

has/have been doing

has/have  being done

Past perfect

had done

had been done

Past Perfect progressive

had been doing

had being done

Simple future

will do

will be done

Future perfect

will have done

will have been done

Near future

is/are going to do

is/are going to be done

Future progressive

will be doing

will being done

Can

can, could do

can, could be done

Might

might do

might be done

Must

must do

must be done

Have to

have to

have to be done





 

III. features

1. Chỉ có Ngoại động từ (transitive verbs) mới có thể dùng trong câu bị động.
- “Ngoại động từ” là loại động từ có một “Tân ngữ” đứng sau.
      Ví dụ: He meets me everyday. (Anh ấy gặp tôi)
    (Phân tích: “meet” được gọi là “Ngoại động từ” vì nó có “Tân ngữ” (me) đứng sau)
- “Tân ngữ” được định nghĩa là bộ phận đứng sau động từ hoặc giới từ để chỉ người hay vật chịu tác động hay tiếp nhận tác động do chủ ngữ câu gây ra. “Tân ngữ” có thể là Đại từ (me,him,her,us,you,them,it) hoặc cụm từ như “My book” trong câu “He borrowed my book (Anh ấy đã mượn cuốn sách của tôi)”

IV.conditions:     điều kiện để có thể chuyển câu chủ động sang bị động:

   1: Câu chủ động phải xác lập có được tân ngữ. (object)

   2: Câu chủ động phải có Ngoại động từ. (transitive verbs)

V.Rules:Khi ñoåi töø chuû ñoäng sang bò ñoäng, ta chuù yù caùc böôùc sau:

  1. Động từ của câu bị động: To be + Past Participle (PII).

  2. Tân ngữ của câu chủ động thành chủ ngữ của câu bị động

  3. Chủ ngữ của câu chủ động thành chủ ngữ của giới từ "BY"

                              S           +       V        +         O

 




 

 

 

 

                                         S          +   be + PII   + (by O)

 

  They       will finish     this work tomorrow.

                                S                     V                 O

 




 

 

 

 

                               This work will be finished (by them) tomorrow

Vi. Notes:

    1. Trong tröôøng hôïp coù lieân töø and vaø giôùi töø of, ta phaûi xaùc ñònh ñaày ñuû chuû töø hoaëc tuùc töø khi chuyeån ñoåi.

       Ex:- Active:    He and I see the film

       à Passive: The film is seen by him and me.

          - Active:    He bought a box of chocolates last week

      à Passive: A box of chocolates was bought last week.

     2. Trong caâu bò ñoäng: by O luoân ñöùng sau adverbs of place (traïng töø chæ nôi choán) vaø tröôùc adverbs of time (traïng töø chæ thôøi gian).

        Ex: (P) The books are arranged on the shelves (by her) every weekend.

                                                           adv of place     by O       adv of time

     3. Trong caâu bò ñoäng, ta coù theå boû: by people, by us, by them, by someone….

        Ex: Passive:  A new bridge has been built across the river (by them).

 

 

part b:  SPECIAL PASSIVE VOICE

1. Thể bị động của câu phủ định và nghi vấn:

     Ex: - (A) Mai doesn’t write this letter.

          à(P) This letter isn’t written by Mai.

           - (A) They didn’t watch the fashion show last night.

          à(P) The fashion show wasn’t watched last night.

           - (A) Did your father make this chair?

à(P) Was this chair made by your father?

 - (A) Who repaired your bicycle?

à(P) Whom was your bicycle repaired by?

          (By whom was your bicycle repaired?)

 - (A) What plays did Shakespeare write?

à(P) What plays were written by Shakespeare?

2. Khi một ngoại động từ ở chủ động có hai tân ngữ, một trực tiếp và một gián tiếp (nhóm tặng biếu), có thể chuyển thành hai câu bị động.

    Ví dụ: I gave him an apple.

             -->An apple was given to him.

             -->He was given an apple by me.

3. Một số câu đặc biệt phải dịch là "Người ta" khi dịch sang tiếng Việt.

   Ví dụ: It is said that = people say that ; (Người ta nói rằng)

              It was said that = people said that. (Người ta nói rằng)

    *Một số động từ được dùng như trên: believe, say, suggest, expect, ...

4. Ta dùng động từ nguyên thể trong thể bị động:

          TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE để chỉ một ý định hay sự bắt buộc hoặc sự  không thể được.

     Ví dụ: This exercise is to be done.

               This matter is to be discussed soon.

5. Sau những động từ: to have, to order, to get, to bid, to cause hay một động từ chỉ về giác quan hoặc cảm tính, ta dùng Past Participle (Tham khảo phần Bảng động từ bất quy tắc) bao hàm nghĩa như bị động:

    Ví dụ:  We had your photos taken.

                We heard the song sung.

                We got tired after having walked for long.

6. Sau một số động từ đặc biệt: remember; want; try; like, hate ...

     Ví dụ: I remember them taking me to the zoo. (active)

           I remember being taken to the zoo.(passive)

    Ví dụ: She wants her sister to take some photogtaphs.(actiove)

           She wants some photographs to be taken by her sister. (passive)

    Ví dụ: She likes her boyfriend telling the truth. (actiove)

              She likes being told the truth. (passive)

7. Một số Trường hợp đặc biệt nguyên mẫu có TO: Suppose; see; make;

     Ví dụ: You are supposed to learn English now. (passive)

               = It is your duty to learn English now. (active)

               = You should learn English now. (active)

    Ví dụ: His father makes him learn hard. (active)

           He is made to learn hard. (passive)

   Ví dụ: You should be working now.(active)

          You are supposed to be working now.(passive)

    Ví dụ: People believed that he was waiting for his friend (active).

He was believed to have been waiting for his friend.(passive

                                                    

                       part c: PASSIVE OF MODAL VERBS

     Các động từ khiếm khuyết (Modal verbs) như: can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, had better, would rather, have to, be going to, used to, ought to, ….          

     Active:      S + Modal Verbs + V + O + …….

     Passive:    S + Modal Verbs + be + PII + (by O) + ……

     Ex: - Active: Nam  can  do this exercise right now.

                             S     M.V  V      O

         à Passive: This exercise can  be  done by Nam right now.

                                     S            M.V  be   PII   by O

            - Active: I am going to solve the problem next month.

                               S       modal verb    V           O

         à Passive: The problem is going to  be solved (by me) next month.

                                      S         modal verb  be  PII         by O

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B. exercises

I.Change these sentences into the passive voice

1. Have the thieves stolen the most valuable painting in the  museum ?

..............................................................................................................

2. Some people will interview the new president on T.V

..............................................................................................................

3. How many languages  do they speak  in Canada ?

...............................................................................................................

4. Are you going to repair those shoes ?

.................................................................................................................

5. He has broken the nose in the football match.

................................................................................................................

6. Have you finished the above sentences ?

........................................................................................................

7. He lends his friend his new shoes.

..........................................................................................................

8. She left her relatives five million pounds.

..........................................................................................................

9. The shop assistant handed these boxes to the customer

......................................................................................................

10. The board awarded the first prize to the reporter.

...............................................................................................................

11.  Have you sent the christmas cards yet ?

..............................................................................................

12 .The committee appointed Alice secretary for the meeting.

...............................................................................................

13. They keep this room tidy all the time.

..............................................................................................

14. They all voted the party a great success.

..............................................................................................

15. We gave Ann some bananas and some flowers.

.................................................................................................

16. They moved  the fridge into the living room

..................................................................................................

17. She brought some cups of tea  to the visitors in the next room .

..................................................................................................

18. My mother waters this flower every morning.

...................................................................................................

19. John invited Fiona to his birthday party last night.

.................................................................................................

20. Her mother is preparing the dinner in the kitchen.

...................................................................................

21. We should clean our teeth twice a day.

....................................................................................................................................

22. Our teachers have explained the English grammar.

.................................................................................................................................

23. Some drunk drivers caused the accident in this city .

....................................................................................................................................

24. Tom will visit his parents next month.

..................................................................................................................................

25. The manager didn’t  phone the secretary this morning.

....................................................................................................................................

26. Did Mary buy this beautiful dress ?

..................................................................................................................................

27. My sister cleans the room everyday.

....................................................................................................................................

28.The local sports center  hold several volleyball tournaments in this season.

................................................................................................................................

29. Someone attacked the boy the boy in the street last night.

....................................................................................................................................

30.The workers have finished the project people grow rice in Viet Nam.

....................................................................................................................................  

II/ Put the verbs in parentheses into the correct active or passive voice

1. Last night my favorite program..............(interrupt) by a special news bulletin.

2. When I................. (arrive) at the airport yesterday, I..................... (meet) by my cousin and a couple of friends.

3. Kim......................... (write) this composition last week. That one ............................. (write) by Phi.

4. I don’t have my bicycle today. It’s with the repairman. It..........................(repair) right now.

5. Someone has bought the small lot behind my house and a new house............................(build) on it next year.

6. A: Do you understand the explanation in the book?

    B: No, I don’t. I.................(confuse).

7. A: When.................... your bike................... (steal)?

    B: Two days ago.

8. A:................ you.................... (pay) your electricity yet?

    B: No. I haven’t. but I’d better pay it today. If I don’t, my electricity supply ................................ (shut off) by the power company

 

III. Change these sentences into the passive voice

1. People should send their complaints to the main office.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

2. Somebody might steal your car if you had left the keys in it.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

3. A short circuit could cause the fire.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

4. Lan is going to invite her friends to her birthday party.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

5. Lien couldn’t open the door of the classroom.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

6. They should announce that news as soon as possible.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

7. Phong has to return the scientific book to the library.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

8. People must repair that old building.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

9. The government will rebuild the memorial monument.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

10. The students may elect Phong their leader.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

11. The teacher won’t accept papers written in pencils.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

12. The athletes might visit some interesting places after Sea-Games.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

13. Lan’s parents have to clean up their house before Tet holidays.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

14. The principal might interview her.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

15. They must keep fruit in the fridge for long.

à…………………………………………………………….…………………..

    VI. Change these sentences into the passive voice

1. Nobody sent us any tickets.

à………………………………………………….……………………………..

2. Has someone decorated my bedroom?

à………………………………………………….……………………………..

3. Did anything disturb you in the night?

à………………………………………………….……………………………..

4. Nobody has invited her to the party.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

5. She teaches grammar and writing.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

6. People say that you send your application form to the university.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

7. Someone stole my money.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

8. I don’t see anyone in the house.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

9. Lan bought her brother some comic books.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

10. The students don’t play video games on the weekend.

à……………………………………………………………….………………..

V.Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence

  1. We can’t go along here because the road........................

       A. is repairing             B. is repaired          C. is being repaired         D. repairs

  1. The story I’ve just read...................Agatha Christie.

       A. was written            B. was written by   C. was written from      D. wrote by

  1. I’m going to go out and.................................................

       A. have cut my hair     B. have my hair cut   C. cut my hair    D. my hair be cut

  1. Something funny...........................in class yesterday.

       A. happened   B. was happened    C. happens   D. is happened

  1. Many US automobiles........................in Detroit, Michigan

       A. manufacture                 B. have manufactured  

       C. are manufactured          D. are manufacturing

  1. A lot of pesticide residue can.........................................unwashed produce.

       A. find     B. found     C. be finding                   D. be found

  1. We..................by a loud noise during the night.

       A. woke up      B. are woken up     C. were woken up    D. were waking up

  1. Some film stars...................difficult to work with.

       A. are said be    B. are said to be    C. say to be D. said to be

  1. Why did Tom keep making jokes about me? – I don’t enjoy........................at.

       A. be laughed     B. to be laughed    C. laughing D. being laughed

  1. Today, many serious childhood diseases...........................by early immunization.[ sự miễn dịch]

       A. are preventing        B. can prevent  C. prevent      D. can be prevented

  1. Do you get your heating..........................every year?

       A. checking                B. check    C. be checked                                           D. checked

  1. Bicycles.......................in the driveway.

       A. must not leave       B. must not be leaving 

       C. must not be left      D. must not have left

  1. Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony.......................next weekend.[ Symphony: khúc giao hưởng]

         A. is going to be performed                                             B. has been performed       

          C. will be performing                                                     D. will have perform

  1. All bottles......................................before transportation.

       A. frozen   B. were froze       C. were frozen      D. are froze

  1. ...............................................yet?

       A. Have the letters been typed                           B. Have been the letters typed

       C. Have the letters typed                                   D. Had the letters typed

  1. English has become a second language in countries like India, Nigeria or Singapore where.................for administration, broadcasting and education.

       A. is used   B. it is used          C. used               D. being used

  1. The telephones..............by Alexander Graham Bell.

       A. is invented             B. is inventing   C. invented       D. was invented

  1. Lots of houses...................by the earthquake.

       A. are destroying        B. destroyed   C. were destroyed      D. is destroyed

  1. Gold.........................in California in the 19th century.

       A. was discovered      B. has been discovered

       C. was discover         D. they discover

  1. The preparation.......................by the time the guest............................

       A. had been finished- arrived                             B. have finished- arrived

       C. had finished-were arriving             D. have been finished- were arrived

  1. The boy_____ by the teacher yesterday.

       A. punish   B. punished         C. punishing         D. was punished

  1. “Ms Jones, please type those letters before noon”_ “They’ve already ______, sir. They’re on your desk.”

       A. typed   B. been being typed   C. being typed       D. been typed

  1. Sarah is wearing a blouse. It___________ of cotton.

       A. be made                B. are made                     C. is made                    D. made

  1. They had a boy _______ that yesterday.

       A. done                      B. to do                          C. did                           D. do

  1. We got our mail ______ yesterday.

       A. been delivered        B. delivered  C. delivering                D. to deliver

  1. James……..the news as soon as possible.

       A. should tell              B. should be told    C. should told    D. should be telled

  1. My wedding ring ______ of yellow and white gold.

       A. is made                  B. is making                    C. made                       D. make

  1. Mr. Wilson is _______ as Willie to his friend.

       A. known                   B. knew                          C. is known                  D. know

  1. References _____ in the examination room.

       A. not are used           B. is not used    C. didn’t used            D. are not used

  1. Laura ______ in Boston.

       A. are born                 B. were born                   C. was born                  D. born

  1. His car needs ________.

       A. be fixed                 B. fixing                          C. to be fixing               D. fixed

  1. Her watch needs _______.

       A. repairing                B. to be repaired    C. repaired    D. A and B

  1. My mother is going _____ this house.

       A. sold                       B. sell        C. to be sold             D. to sell

  1. There’s somebody behind us. I think we are _______.

       A. being followed       B. are followed  C. follow           D. following

  1. Have you _____ by a dog?

       A. bite                        B. bit    C. ever been bitten      D. ever been bit

  1. The room is being _____ at the moment.

       A. was cleaned           B. cleaned                       C. cleaning                   D. clean

  1. It _____ that the strike will end soon.

       A. is expected            B. expected     C. are expected       D. was expected

  1. It is _____ that many people are homeless after the floods.

       A. was reported          B. reports       C. reported                                            D. reporting

  1. He was said _____ this building.

       A. designing               B. to have designed         C. to design    D. designed

  1. Ted ______ by a bee while he was sitting in the garden.

       A. got sting                B. got stung   C. get stung       D. gets stung

  1. These tennis courts don’t _____ very often. Not many people want to play.

       A. got used                B. used                           C. get used        D. get use

  1. I’ll get Minh _____ do this for you.

       A. do                         B. done                           C. did                           D. to do

  1. Those letters ________ now. You can do the typing later.

       A. need typing            B. needn t be typed     C. need to type D. needn t typing

  1. “What a beautiful dress you are wearing”- “thanks, it_____ especially for me by a French tailor.”

       A. is made                  B. has made                    C. made       D. was made

  1. Somebody cleans the room every day.

A. The room everyday is cleaned.           B. The room is every day cleaned.

C. The room is cleaned every day.    D. The room is cleaned by somebody every day.

  1. People don’t use this road very often.

      A. This road is not used very often.        B. Not very often this road is not used.

       C. This road very often is not used.        D. This road not very often is used.

  1. How do people learn languages?

       A. How are languages learned?       B. How are languages learned by people?

       C. How languages are learned?                          D. Languages are learned how?

  1. Over 1500 new houses _______ each year. Last year, 1720 new houses _______.

       A. were built/ were built                                     B. are built/ were built  

       C. are building / were built                                 D. were built/ were being built

  1. Tom bought that book yesterday.

A. That book was bought by Tom yesterday   D. That book was bought yesterday

B. That book was bought yesterday by Tom.C. That book yesterday was bought by Tom.

  1. The new computer system _____ next month.  

         A. is be installed                B. is being installed                 C. is been installed            D. is being installed by people

 

 

 

 

key

I.Change these sentences into the passive voice

1.Has the most valuable painting in the  museum has been stolen ?

2.The new president will be interviewed on T.V

3.How many languages  are spoken  in Canada ?

4.Are those shoes going tobe repaired ?

5.He has broken the nose in the football match.

6.Have the above sentences been finished ?

7.His friend is lent his new shoes.

8.Her relatives were left five million pounds.

9.These boxes were handed to the customer.

10.The first prize was awarded  to the reporter by the board.

11  Have the christmas cards been sent yet ?

12 The committee appointed Alice was appointed secretary for the meeting by the

13 This room is kept tidy all the time.

14. The party was voted a great success.

15. Ann was given some bananas and some flowers.

16. The fridge was moved  into the living room

17. Some cups of tea were brought by her to the visitors in the next room .

18. This flowerwas watered by my mother every morning.

19. Fiona was invited by John to his birthday party last night.

20.The dinner is being prepared in the kitchen.

21.Our teeth shoud be cleaned twice a day.

22. The English grammar has been explained by our teachers.

23. The accident was caused by some drunk drivers in this city .

24.Tom’s parents will be visited by him next month.

25. The secretary wasn’t phoned by the manager this morning.

26. Was this beautiful dress bought by Mary?

27.The room is cleaned by my sister  everyday.

28. Several volleyball tournaments rae held by the local sports center  in this season.

29. The boy was attacked  in the street last night.

30. The project people grow rice in Viet Nam has been finished by the workers.

II.

     1.was interrupted

2. arrived- was met

3.wrote- was written

4.is being prepared

5. will be built

6. confused

7.was- stolen

8.Have- paid /   was shutted off.

 

 

  III Change these sentences into the passive voice

1. Their complaints should be sendt to the main office.

2. Your car might be stolen if you had left the keys in it.

3. The fire could be caused by a short circuit.

4. Lan’s friends are going to invited to her birthday party.

5. The door of the classroom couldn’t be opened by Lien.

6. That news should be announced as soon as possible.

7. The scientific book has to be returned by Phong to the library.

8. That old building must be repaired.

9. The memorial monument will be rebuilt by the government.

10. Phong may elected their leader by the students.

11. Papers written in pencils won’t be accepted by the teacher.

12. The athletes might visit some interesting places after Sea-Games.

13.Their house has to be cleaned up by Lan’s parents before Tet holidays.

14. She might be interviewed by the principal .

15. Fruit must be kept in the fridge for long.

IV.Change these sentences into the passive voice

1. We weren’t sent  any tickets.

2. Has your bedroom been decorated?

3. Were you disturbed  in the night?

4. She hasn’t been invited to the party.

5. Grammar and writing are taught by her.

6. It is that you send your application form to the university.

7. My money was stolen.

8.No one is seen in the house.

9. Lan ‘s brother was bought some comic books.

10. Video games aren’t played on the weekend.

 

V.

1

C

11

D

21

D

31

C

41

C

2

C

12

C

22

D

32

B

42

B

3

B

13

A

23

C

33

C

43

B

4

A

14

C

24

A

34

A

44

D

5

C

15

A

25

B

35

C

45

C

6

D

16

B

26

B

36

B

46

A

7

C

17

D

27

A

37

A

47

C

8

B

18

C

28

A

38

A

48

B

9

C

19

A

29

D

39

B

49

A

10

D

20

A

30

C

40

B

50

B

 

 

                                       ParticipleS

a. Theory

I.Present Participle  (Hiện tại phân từ )

1. Form:  Present participle = V-ing

2. Usage: The present participle indicates action, more like a verb or an adjective. It can be used:

- as a verb in the continuous tense form

           Eg: She’s cooking dinner.

- as an adjective

           Eg: It’s an interesting story.

- to replace a relative clause

          Eg: The man (who is) standing next to the door is my father.

- to replace subject + verb in the main or subordinate clauses

          Eg: Entering the room, I saw him.

- after some verbs like catch, find, leave, etc + someone

          Eg: I caught him climbing the fence.

                     Don’t leave her waiting outside in the rain.

      - after some verbs such as waste, spend, go, be busy, ect

                Eg: You waste too much time copying the Lessonagain.

                       It’s very hot today. Let’s go swimming.

      - after some verbs of perception such as see, hear, watch, smell,       

        feel, observe, notice, etc

                 Eg: I heard him coming into the hall.

  II.Past Participle (PII): (Quá khứ phân từ)

dùng để chỉ:

- một trạng thái hoặc hành động đã hoàn tất.
      "Past Participle is a participle indicating a completed action or state",
- một hành động hay thời gian đã xảy ra (hoặc đã hoàn tất).
      "A past participle indicates past (or completed) action or time."
1- FORM:
- Động từ thường (regular verb): Thêm vào sau động từ với "d" hoặc "ed"
        Ví dụ: Divide => DivideD, Answer => AnswerED.
- Động từ bất quy tắc (irregular verb). (Phải học thuộc).
        Ví dụ :To go => GONE, To rise => RISEN.
2- USAGE:
- Dùng làm Tĩnh từ (Adjẹctive):
            He has a BROKEN arm.
- Trong Passive voice: Với trợ động từ (auxiliary verb) .
            Her hair was well BRUSHED.
- Trong Present Perfect tense:
            I have WORKED here for two years.
- Trong Past Perfect tense:
             He said that he had SENT an e-mail to me.
- Trong Future Perfect tense:
              I will be too late because I will have GONE by then.
- Trong Conditional Perfect: (Với could, would, might + have)
               If I had been there, I would have MADE some suggestions.

notes. Chúng ta thường dùng các mệnh đề -ing và –ed sau there is / there was

-  Is there anybody waiting tosee me?

(Có ai đang đợi tôi không?).

-  There were some children swimming in the river.

(Lúc đó có vài đứa trẻ đang bơi trên sông).

- When I arrived, there was a big red car parked outside the house.

(Khi tôi đến, đã có một chiếc xe hơi to màu đỏ đậu bên ngoài ngôi nhà).

 

III- Perfect participle:( phân từ hoàn thành)

    1. Usage diễn tả hoặc nhấn mạnh sự hoàn thành của 1 hành động
         Ví dụ:   They denied having been there.

    2.Form: HAVING+ PP

. NOTES:Cách dùng tương tự Present Participle & Perfect Participle nhưng về mặt ý nghĩa, nó diễn tả hoặc nhấn mạnh sự hoàn thành của 1 hành động
       Eg1: Finishing my homework, I went to bed: Sau khi làm xong bài tập tôi đi ngủ
                Having finished my homework, ... : Sau khi đã làm xong bài tập ...
* Câu thứ hai nhấn mạnh việc đi ngủ chỉ xảy ra sau khi đã làm xong bài tập.
       Eg2: I approve of helping the poor: Tôi đồng ý với việc giúp đỡ người nghèo
                I approve of having helped the poor: Tôi đồng ý với việc các bạn đã giúp đỡ người nghèo
* Câu thứ hai diễn tả ý giúp đỡ người nghèo này đã xảy ra rồi.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

B. exercises

Exercise1: Fill in the blank in each of the following sentences with an appropriate form of the verb in parentheses ( perfect participle)

1. Mai apologized for (use).......... my bicycle yesterday morning without asking for my permission.

2. (Watch)............... this film several times before, I started falling asleep in the middle of it.

3. In all the conditions of a drunkard, Mr. Le began driving straight back home, forgetting, (not, pay)......... any money to the barman.

4. (Organize).............. the 16th APEC summit conferences successfully, Viet Nam gained the reputation of being the safest and friendliest venue for such significant international events.

5. After (defeat)................ all his opponents, Hai won the gold medal in that interschool chess tournament.

 Exercise 2:  Rewrite the following sentences using present  participle, past participle

      1. Maxicorp were the only company which replied my letter.

       à ……………………………………………………………

       2. Do you the man who is talking to my father ?

       à ……………………………………………………………

       3. Applications which were sent after 23rd will not be

        considered.

        à ……………………………………………………………

       5. Studies of her son are the most important thing that she cares 

        about.

         à ……………………………………………………………

4.The equipment which belongs to the club is insured.

à ……………………………………………………………

6.Meetings which are held every month are called monthly meetings.

à ……………………………………………………………

7.The most excellent students who were rewarded the scholarship would have a two-week holiday in Vung Tau.

à ……………………………………………………………

8.The trees which were planted last week are growing well.

à ……………………………………………………………

9. The man who is talking to John is from Korea.

à ……………………………………………………………

10. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting.

à …………………………………………………………… 

11. English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.

à ……………………………………………………………

12. The children who attend that school receive a good education.

à ……………………………………………………………

13. The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries.

à ……………………………………………………………

14. The sunlight which comes through the window wakes me up early every morning.

à ……………………………………………………………

     15. These are the ancient houses which were built a long time ago.

à ……………………………………………………………

 Exercise 3: Supply the correct forms of the missing verbs:

1. If I (manage) ............ to repair my car earlier, I (drive) ............ you to London.

2. If I (know) ............ last week that she was ill, I (visit) ............ her.

3. She (not, hear) ……………… the news if she (not, turn on) ……………… the radio this morning.

4. We (be) ………… at the airport for hours if we (not, know) …………… that the flight was delayed.

5. I (make) ............ a bad mistake if I (not, read) ............ the instructions..

 Exercise4: Rewrite the following sentences, using Conditional Sentences

1. He didn’t hurry, so he missed the train.

àIf ...............................................................................................................

2. My brother didn’t leave the car keys, so I couldn’t pick him up at the station.

àIf my brother ...............................................................................................

3. We didn’t go because it rained.

 à If it hadn’t ................................................................................................

4. We didn’t go on holiday because we didn’t have enough money.

àIf we ...........................................................................................................

5. Susan felt sick because she ate four cream cakes.

à If Susan ....................................................................................................

6. Without this treatment, the patient would have died.

à If he ........................................................................................................

7. We got lost because we didn’t have a map.

 àIf we.......................................................................................................

8. He lost his job because he was late every day.

à If he .......................................................................................................

9. Peter is fat because he eats so many chips.

   If .................................................................................................................

10. Robert got a bad cough because he started smoking cigarettes.

àIf Robert ...................................................................................................

Exercise5: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

1.It is easy (fool) ………….. by his lies.

2.Martha doesn’t like to have her picture taken. She avoids (photograph) ………………

3.I appreciate  (invite) …………. to your home.

4.Let’s not risk (catch) ………. In a traffic jam.

5.The government tried to stop the book (publish) ………….

6.(search) …………….. by customs officers is unpleasant.

7.There’s a lot of work (do)…………….

 

8.The new students hope (include) …............ in many of the school’s social activities.

9.When the police first questioned him, he denied (involve) …………. in the robbery.

10. I remember (take) ………. to the zoo when I was a child.

11.We managed to climbed over the wall without (see) ……...

12.Isabel expected (admit) ………..to the university, but she wasn’t.

13.The tin opener seems (design) …... for left-handed people.

14.Many reliable methods of storing information tended (forget) …………. When the computers arrived.

15.She resented (ask) ……………to make tea for everyone at the meeting.

16.Let’s leave early. We can’t risk (hold up) …………in heavy traffic during rush hour.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                             key

Exercise 1

1. having used

2. having watched

3. not having paid

4. having organized

5. having defeated

Exercise 2:  Rewrite the following sentences using present 

      participle, past participle

     1. Maxicorp were the only company replied my letter.

     2. Do you the man talking to my father ?

     3. Applications sent after 23rd will not be  considered

4.The equipment belonging to the club is insured.

5.Meetings held every month are called monthly meetings.

6.The most excellent students rewarded the scholarship would have a two-week holiday in Vung Tau.

7.The trees planted last week are growing well.

8. The man talking to John is from Korea.

9. The ideas presented in that book are interesting.

10. English consisting of 26 letters has an alphabet.

11. The children attending that school receive a good education.

12. The psychologists studying the nature of sleep have made important discoveries.

13. The sunlight coming through the window wakes me up early every morning.

 14. These houses built a long time ago are the ancient.

 Exercise 3: Supply the correct forms of the missing verbs:

1. had managed  ..... would have driven

2. had known .....     would have visited

3. would n’t have heard....       hadnot  turned on.

4. would have been.....     had not known     

5. would have made  .....        hadnot read

 

Exercise4: Rewrite the following sentences, using Conditional Sentences

1.If he had hurried he would n’t have missed the train

2. If my brother had not left the car keys,  I could have picked him up at the station.

3. If it hadn’t rained we would have gone

4. we have had enough money we would have gone on holiday

5. If Susan hadn’t eaten four cream cakes she had not felt sick.

6. If he hadn’t  have this treatment ,the patient would have died

7. If we have a map we would n’t have got lost.

8. If he would n’t have been late every day he would n’t have lost his job

9. If Peter hadn’t eaten so many chips he would n’t have been fat

10. If Robert hadn’t started smoking cigarettes he would n’t have got a bad cough.

 

Exercise5:

1.to be fooled

2.being taken

3.being invited

4.being caught

5.being published

6.Being searched

7.to be done / to do

8.to be included

9.being involved

10. being taken

11. being seen

12. to be admitted

13. to be designed

14. to be forgotten

15.being asked

 

 

RELATIVE CLAUSES

Defining and Non Defining Relative Clauses

 

A. THEORY:

I. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES:

 

F A defining relative clause (also called identifying [nhận biết] relative clauses or restrictive [giới hạn] relative clauses) gives essential information about the noun or noun phrase it modifies, without which the sentence wouldn’t make sense as the listener or reader would not be able to identify the noun in the sentence. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

          Ä Defining relative clauses usually follow the + noun:

          + The book that you gave me on my birthday is very interesting.

          (“That you gave me on my birthday” tells the listener which book I am talking about, it defines the book)

Ä Defining relative clauses can also be used with a/an + noun, plural nouns without the, and the pronouns all, none, anybody, something ect, and those.

          + Have you ever met someone who can speak five languages?

          Ä Sometimes these clauses are separated from their noun/pronoun by a word or phrase.

          + There’s something in the bridge which you may want to eat.

          Ä We often find defining relative clauses in definitions.

          + Bricklayer is someone who builds houses.

          Ä Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped.

          + The lady (who/whom) we met yesterday is a very good doctor.

          Ä It + be + noun/pronoun + defining relative clause.

          + It was Mr. Jones who (that) designed this program.

          + It is the learner that is responsible for his learning.

          + It is the quality of the products that matters.

 

II. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

 

F A non-defining relative clause (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) gives extra information about a noun or noun phrase and has commas at both ends.

          + My father, who is a clerk, is going to retire next month.

(“Who is a clerk” is not essential, which means that I only have one father and he does not need to be defined by the relative clause.)

          ÄWho” and “whose” are used for people.  “Which” and “whose” are used for things.

          + Trang Thanh, whose uncle is a pilot, has just won the second prize in the English contest.

          + My dictionary, whose cover is blue, is not very good.

          ÄThat” cannot be used in a non-defining relative clause.

          ÄWhich” is also used to refer to the whole situation talked about in the sentence outside the relative clause:

          + The class meeting won’t be held until next Sunday, which is really disappointing.

NOTE:

F In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

F Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.

+ Linh Giang,who/whom we met yesterday, is my neighbor.

 

 

 

B. PRACTICE

 

I- Fill in the blanks with relative pronouns/ adverbs. Put commas when they are needed:

 

1. Alexander Flemming _____ discovered penicillin , received the Nobel Prize in 1945.

2. The book ______ I need can’t be found in the library.

3. Dr Hung_______we met at a shop yesterday ,will teach us English linguistics next week.

4. Do you know the American woman ______ name is Margaret Mitchell?

5. Jim ______ I have known for ten years, is one of my closest friends.

6. John found a cat ______ leg was broken.

7. Don’t sit on the chair ______ is broken.

8. This tree ______ branches are dry should be cut down.

9. The child smiled at the woman ______ he didn’t know.

10. That woman ______ name I don’t remember is a doctor.

11. Children enjoy reading the books ______ have colored pictures.

12. I met someone ______ said he knew you.

13. The noise ______ he made woke everybody up.

14. The film is about a spy ______ wife betrays him.

15. Those girls ______ serve in the restaurant are the owner’s daughters.

16. The house ______ walls and roof are made of glass is a green house.

17. Rod Lee ______ sister I know , is a film actor.

18. Mr. Bake will buy the house ______ is opposite to my house.

19. You have to take care of the books ______ you borrowed from the library.

20. Karl Marx ______ theories have changed the world’s history , is the German Philosopher

21. Let me see all the letters _____ you have written.

22. Is there anyone ______ can help me do this?

23. Mr. Brown ______ is only 34 , is the director of this company.

24. The chief of police, ______ work is very important, takes care of the public safety.

25. I know a place ______ roses grow in abundance.

26. The teacher with _______ we studied last year no longer teaches in our school.

27. They showed me the hospital ______ buildings had been destroyed by bombings.

28. We saw many soldiers and tanks ______ were moving to the front.

29. We must find a time _ _____ we can meet and a place _ ____ we can talk.

30. The decision was postponed ____ was exactly what he wanted.

 

II- Use a relative pronoun/ adverb to combine each pair of the sentences below.

 

1. This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year.

-> ……………………………………………………………………………………….

2. This is the house. We often stay in this house in the summer.

-> ………………………………………………………………………………………

3. I was sitting on a chair. It suddenly collapsed.

-> ………………………………………………………………………………………

4. This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory.

-> ………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Charlie Chaplin died in 1977. His films amused millions of people in the world.

-> ………………………………………………………………………………………

6. I’ll show you the second-hand bookshop. You can find valuable books in this shop.

-> ……………………………………………………………………………………….

7. The police want to know the hotel. Mr. Bush stayed at this hotel two weeks ago.

-> ………………………………………………………………………………………

8. He doesn’t want to sell the house. He was born in this house.

-> ………………………………………………………………………………………

9. The teacher is Mr. Pike. We studied with him last year.

-> ……………………………………………………………………………………….

10. The problem  has been discussed in class. We are very interested in it.

-> ……………………………………………………………………………………….

 

III. Choose the best answer.

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